A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE HISTORY IN ANDALUCIA
BRIEF HISTORY OF ANDALUCIA
The origin of civilization in the south of Spain
Since the first Bronze Age, in the third millennium BC, the land situated between two seas and two continents is the preferred destination of different people and civilizations.
The ancient and well-known kingdom of Tartessos was formed in the south of Spain in the 11th century BC under the influence of the Phoenicians and Greek. In this epoch the oldest city of the west, Cadiz, was founded. Agriculture, livestock, as well as mining and the production of silver and bronze were the activities preferred by this culture of traders. They were the Tuditanids, Iberian people. In this time the Carthaginians set up their own settlements in this region.
THE ROMAN EMPIRE
In the 3rd century BC the Romans, after their victories in the Punic Wars, ended the sovereignty of the Carthaginians, creating and dominating during the following 700 years the province "Bética". Andalusia supplied the Roman Empire with food, oil, wine and metals. The philosopher Seneca and the two first emperors born outside of Rome came from Italics (province of Seville), Trajan and Hadrian. From the 3rd century BC Rome was more oriented towards the West (Constantinople).
BAELO CLAUDIA ROMAN RUINS
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Vandals, arrived from the north of Germany. In struggle with the future Muslim people, it is believed that it is from this time the name of the Shire became Vandalucía. The Germanic hegemony did not last long, following the conquest by the Visigoths. Under the reign Alaric II they were established on the Iberian Peninsula and experienced their greatest heyday in the times of the Bishops Leandro and Isidoro.
AL ANDALUS AND THE RECONQUEST
At the beginning of the 8th century the Arab crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and spread quickly across the Iberian Peninsula. The Independent Emirate of Al-Andalus and later the Caliphate of Cordoba marked the apogee of the dynasty of the Umayyad and with it the Arab culture in Andalusia. Cordoba became the center and crucible of different cultures and religions. Trade, science, craftsmanship and art experience experienced a great boom. From the year 1031, the caliphate was divided into small Islamic kingdoms. The Almoravids and the Almohad (Berber) were in control of Al-Andalus until the 13th century. Then the reconquest begins by the Christians. After the reconquest of Cordoba (1236) and Sevilla (1248), the Nasrid dynasty still reigns for two and a half centuries in Granada. The last Moorish king, Boabdil handed over the keys of Granada in January 1492 to the Kings Catholic Isabel and Fernando and takes his refuge in the Alpujarras.
MUSLIM PALACE ALHAMBRA OF GRANADA
MUSLIM PALACE. ALCAZAR OF SEVILLE
ANDALUSIA AND SPAIN AFTER THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA
The crisis of the eighteenth century begins with the war of Spanish Succession, during this war England assaulted Gibraltar. The court of Philip V, the first king of the dynasty of the Bourbons was established for some years in Sevilla. In the middle of this century the first ideas of the Enlightenment emerged. In 1788 Cadiz loses its hegemony in the trade with the Indies. In the early nineteenth century, Andalusia suffered the effects of the Napoleonic Wars, which affect the entire continent. The Spanish colonial empire crumbles, while in the Carlist wars it is returned to the fight for the succession to the throne. In the middle of the century a social revolt occurred and with it the liberal revolution. After two years of Government of the First Republic, the monarchy was restored. At the end of the nineteenth century the peasants revolt took place and the uprising in Andalusia returned. The war with the United States of America puts an end to the colonial empire. The Spanish crown loses Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines.
VESSELS ARRIVING TO SEVILLE FROM AMERICA
TWENTIEH CENTURY TO OUR DAYS
In the first half of the twentieth century Spain is still a basically agrarian country. During this time the country will be involved in social revolts and internal conflicts. The dictatorship of Primo de Rivera followed by the Second Republic. While the two world wars did not affect him militarily, the country could not avoid a Civil War. With the victory of the Nationals, General Franco arrived and with him the dictatorship which extends until his death in 1975. With the proclamation of Juan Carlos I as King of Spain and the restoration of democracy, many new possibilities open up for all the Spanish regions. Andalusia obtains the state of autonomic region after the referendum of the 28 of February 1982. The growing economic and social boom that had occurred in the Sixties and Seventies will be intensified, especially in the south by the strong increase in the tourism sector. New perspectives for agriculture have also been opened since the entry of Spain into the European Union.